China Science and Technology Network (CSTNET) originates from the project of National Computing and Networking Facility of China (NCFC). In August, 1989, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) undertook the project NCFC, sponsored by State Development Planning Commission. In April, 1994, NCFC first directly interconnected with NSFNET of US, which therefore accomplished China’s full-function network connection with Internet and marked the birth of China’s earliest global Internet. In December, 1995, the project “Internetworking of 100 CAS Institutes” was completed, and in February, 1996, based on NCFC, CSTNET was formally named by CAS. Currently, CSNET is one of the divisions of Computer Network Information Center (CNIC), CAS.
After the development of nearly twenty years, CSTNET has covered 30 provinces, cities, autonomous regions in China via 13 regional sub-centers at Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Wuhan, Nanjing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Hefei, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Xi’an, Kunming and Xinjiang to form the domestic backbone with core network of 10Gbps,WAN 1-2.5Gbps and access network 1Gbps (Figure 1). CSTNET is now providing network access service for 370 institutions and two universities. Today, more than 1 million researchers and scholars in China are connected by CSTNET.
Figure 1. Backbone of CSTNET
CSTNET is mainly serving for the institutions of CAS. A range of research fields in CAS like HEP, genomics, and astronomy take actively participate in global research experiment, and large volumes of data are involved and huge amount of network traffic is generated. All those projects have huge demands for an advanced research network. To meet the specific requirement of those research communities, CSTNET has been working closely with international partners to provide solutions. In the past years, CSTNET has joined the Global Ring Network for Advanced Applications Development (GLORIAD) ORIENTplus, Hong Kong Open Exchange Point (HKOEP) and a lot of international collaborations in multi-disciplinary applications areas, proactively explored new patterns of scientific applications on the network, and provided integrated services, which covers collaboration environment platform, unified communication platform, network security, storage, and intercontinental network acceleration for big science applications.
GLORIAD (Figure 2) is a network which promotes new opportunities for collaboration and cooperation among scientists, educators and students. It was first proposed in 2002 by China, U.S. and Russia. GLORAID was launched in January 12, 2004 by the U.S., China and Russia, and expanded its reach in 2005 to Korea, Canada and the Netherlands and in 2006 to the five Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Figure 2. GLORIAD in 2013
Currently, CSTNET owns two network links within GLORAID project. One is the 10Gbps link from HK to Seattle and the other one is the 5Gbps link from Beijing to HK. With the platform of GLORIAD, CSTNET has supported a series of large science collaborations between China and US in various areas, such as genomics data transferring, HEP data delivery and geographic data sharing, which are from the Institute of High Energy Physics of CAS and other research agencies.
In 2002, CSTNET established the HKOEP. As the first open exchange point in Asia, HKOEP underpins the cooperation between CSTNET and R&E networks from all over the world (Figure 3). HKOEP has enabled peering with Korea, Singapore, Japan, China Taiwan, and China HK with 1Gbps link. Moreover, in 2006, HKOEP has setup the first optic network node in China, which offers more flexible and stable network link between HK and North America. CSTNET is planning to update the facilities of HKOEP in early 2014.
Figure 3. CSTNET HKOEP Interconnections
The HKOEP is also an important node in Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF). Except for the link of 2.5Gbps from Beijing to HK and the link of 10Gbps from HK to Seattle, HKOEP also has one 10Gbps link to Daejeon and other three links to Tokyo, Taipei and Singapore respectively.
As a jointly funded project by the European Commission through its 7th Framework Programme, the European NREN partners and the Chinese government, the ORIENTplus (Figure 4) is created to maintain and further develop infrastructure between GÉANT and S&E network of China. ORIENTplus is open for use by all European and Chinese researchers. In the beginning of 2013, to prompt more and more scientific collaborations and big science applications across China and Europe, the ORIENTplus link was updated from pervious 2.5Gbps to current 10Gbps.
Figure 4. ORIENTplus
In 2011, CSTNET joined the ORIENTplus project as a full partner. Through the ORIENTplus, CSTNET has boosted data-intensive scientific activities in a range of disciplines such as high-energy physics, radio astronomy, genomics and etc.
The Pacific Rim Application and Grid Middleware Assembly (PRAGMA)
The Pacific Rim Application and Grid Middleware Assembly (PRAGMA) was formed in 2002 to establish sustained collaborations and advance the use of grid technologies in applications among a community of investigators working with leading institutions around the Pacific Rim. Currently there are 35 institutions in PRAGMA (Figure 5), who meet twice a year at PRAGMA Workshops. In PRAGMA, applications are the key, integrating focuses that bring together the necessary infrastructure and middleware to advance the application’s goals. Working groups focus our activities. PRAGMA is governed by a Steering Committee.
As one of the founders of PRAGMA, CNIC/CSTNET has involved every events of the PRAGMA. CNIC/CSTNET hosted PRAGMA 25 in October, 2013. Currently, CNIC/CSTNET has participated two working groups: Resource and Data, BioSciences”. Moreover, based on the Globus toolkit, CNIC/CSTNET has built up a grid testbed, which has been one of the nodes of the PRAGMA Grid Testbed since 2003.
Figure 5. PRAGMA
As a pioneer of China Internet, CSTNET will continuously march forward and strive hard to make greater contributions to the informatization construction for the country’s science and technology research.